This song ‘of David’ only just makes it into the lectionary, once in Year B alone. However, the themes of supplication, forgiveness, trust and peace are familiar from many other similar songs. The last verse seems to set it aside, not as an expression of divine protection for this is another common theme, but as an evening prayer:
I will both lie down and sleep in peace; for you alone, O God, make me lie down in safety. (9)
It was this last verse that attracted many composers, Sir Arthur Sullivan amongst them, as a safe bet for a nice song. Lassus lined up for two different settings, one for the whole psalm entitled Cum invocarem (‘When I call’, v.1) for six voices, and the other In pace a simpler and shorter setting of those last lines for three equal voices. This last one might interest small groups.
In our modern sources:
TiS 2 has an easy refrain, but the Gelineau verse setting fails to grab me.
NCH has interesting words based on verse 6 and attractive harmonies
Close competition from PFAS 4A and a nice Malawian call-and-response in 4A alt.
Everett’s offering in TEP is an interesting edgy piece that sits on the 9th of an EbΔ, before smooth transitions up and back to that chord through Gb and Fm7. (Sung at SWUC April 2015.)
Amongst these jewels we shall sing this simple refrain drawing on verse 6, with verses to the same tune:
Note: An introduction to Psalm 119 was posted last week.
This fifth section (33-40) reads like a plea from a faltering student for assistance in following a path that is definitely right but steep or poorly defined. The psalmist seeks divine tuition in the way of right statutes, understanding of the law, and the path to justice. He asks that his heart and eyes may be turned towards divine standards, away from the unjust and worthless pursuits.
Everett in TEP homes in on those crucial ingredients of insight and integrity in verse 34, understanding values and right ways in a complex and slippery ethical environment. He paraphrases this verse to fit in with the common tune that is called in to service throughout all sections of this long psalm. The wording is perhaps rather quaint but it is memorable and it works: “Elevate my understanding. Ever in my heart keep watch.“
PFAS 119J provides an easy but effective refrain based on a ii-IV (or V11)-I which pertains to both the previous section, Daleth, and this one. Verses may be sung to the tone provided or, as usual, one of the cantor’s choice.
South Woden has used a simple home-grown refrain with words paraphrased to fit the same melody. For Aleph the refrain dwelt on verse 5; in this section He, verse 33 is in the spotlight:
Several SATB settings of this section or excerpts are listed in the classical arena — by Atwood, Boyce (with alto soloist) and Rogier to name a few. Five-part settings are available from William Byrd, and also Orlando di Lasso whose incipit follows:
Psalms 96 to 98 appear often in the Lectionary, particularly at Christmas but also at other ordinary times during the year. The triplet forms a joyful package for a joyful occasion: these three songs for Christmas sing out in praise of the creator, the source of goodness, and imagine a responsive jubilant creation.
The fine old manuscript shown in this digital reproduction (click to enlarge) is known as the Psalter of Henry VIII. It opens with a dedicatory letter by Jean Mallard, who wrote and probably illuminated the manuscript, incipit: ‘Regium istud Davidis’, a prefatory reference which likens Henry to King David. This Psalter, which includes three Canticles, was very much a personal reference. The British Library says:
As indicated by the many marginal notes added in the King’s own hand, the volume became Henry VIII’s personal copy of the Psalms.
So it seems that the psalms had high profile in earlier times. And since Henry was also a respected musician and singer, he may also have sung his psalms. The illustration appears in Psalm 97 folio 118r (our 96) showing angels singing within an ornate golden initial capital of Cantate Domino – ‘Sing unto the Lord’.
The words ‘sing’ or ‘song’ appear in about half of the 150 psalms, evidence enough that these are poems to be sung. Psalm 96 begins with that oft-repeated call to sing a new song. Like Psalm 98, it calls for joyful thanks and praise:
O sing to God a new song; sing, all the earth. Sing to God and bless the name; tell of this salvation from day-to-day. Declare God’s glory among the nations, the marvellous works among all the peoples. For great is God, and greatly to be praised; to be revered above all gods. (Ps. 96:1-4 alt.)
The rest of the poem brings in more rejoicing in a universal sense, to include the earth, seas, heavens and all living creatures and peoples. Some verses are repeated from other psalms such as 29, 93 and (relevant in this clutch of readings) 98:7-9. It’s also the source of that sweet phrase ‘the beauty of holiness’.
For such an important occasion everyone wants to sing a new song, it seems. Sure enough, there are dozens of settings ancient and modern of this psalm, or at least the opening phrases. Nearly all classical settings confine their scope to the first two or three verses starting with Cantate Domino.
Bach conceived a great piece called Singet dem Herrn (BWV225), a lovely sing that needs to be taken at a lively clip for full effect (listen>>)
Claudio Monteverdi, Orlandus Lassus, Heinrich Schütz and Jan Sweelinck produced some similarly demanding works.
However, there are also several other nice songs within reach of amateur groups. A trio by Lassus (last system of Prima Pars shown) would be a strong contender.
There are eight in Psalms for All Seasons alone. One of them (96G) even stretches the text to: “Sing to the Lord no threadbare song, no time-worn toothless hymn, no sentimental platitude, no empty pious whim.” OK, we get the message.
The straight-up three-chord harmonies of the third setting PFAS No 96C roll along sweetly, suggesting an easy first choice. The choice of refrain assumes we have indeed got the new song message and have moved on; it reminds us of that universal vibrant response sparked across the whole creation:
Let the heavens rejoice, let the earth be glad, let all that is in them sing to the Lord (v. 11)
Together in song, albeit characteristically ignoring some verses (and gender inclusiveness), does at least cover all these psalms in song numbers 54 to 57, mostly in our favoured responsorial style.
New Century has another simple refrain but with a hidden surprise. The tune by Jane Marshall, 1994, is nice enough. No chord symbols are added but on closer inspection of the harmonisation, an unusual twist can be seen. The chords all behave themselves with due modesty, clustering mildly around the root Eb major, the sub-dominant and related minors. Then at the end, Jane sends us an unexpected rising swell to lift us to a final III chord, G major. Good one.
And while we are riding the wave, Everett in TEP provides his usual innovation with a two-part canon. He draws on verses 7-8 but, as he says: “mimicking the rise and fall of the seas mentioned in verse 11”.
This easy home-grown tune has also been sung at South Woden:
In many churches, Psalm 96 is read on Christmas Eve, for example at midnight mass, while the next two psalms are listed for the great day itself. The ancient psalmists would assume that you will bring your own lyre, timbrel or sackbut to join in!
Psalm 52 is another of those songs that can sound vindictive and unforgiving when encountered outside its historical setting. Fortunately, the preamble refers to Doeg and Saul, thereby providing the requisite clues.
Doeg is not, one has to admit, a big name in biblical tales. A devious fellow, it seems, which is what got David so worked up. Best I quote one of the dictionaries (see box, click to enlarge):
The psalmist is justifiably cranky at being misrepresented. He had not yet received the policy update bulletin about love enemies, strangers and neighbours, of course — that is coming up in the gospel reading this week with the Good Samaritan.
So David wanted God to hand out the full come-upance. Having got this off his chest, he then pops in one of those little gems of imagery:
But I am like a green olive tree in the house of God. I trust in the steadfast love of God forever
Near the Pont du Gard stands an old olive tree a thousand years old, a classic example of this imagery.
Most congregations will be happy with simple sung verses and response such as those available in the usual sources.
More ambitiously, how nice it would be if you could roll out Orlando de Lasso‘s motet for five voices entitled Quam gloriaris. The Latin text of this incipit is rendered rather quaintly in the BCP as:
Why boastest thou thyself, thou tyrant: that thou canst do mischief; whereas the goodness of God endureth yet daily?
This two-part piece was published in Sacrae cantiones in 1566, during his time in Venice. It starts conventionally enough, the alto entering with the melody, rather than the usual tenor entry. The other voices enter in succession, cantus, tenor, then quintus and finally bass.
The opening tune is essentially a rising scale do-re-mi-fa-so in F with ornamentation. Composers often used the Gregorian psalm tones as a basis. While it is not quite one of the standard psalm tones from Liber Usualis, it is close to Tone I shown here. It may also have been a popular sacred or secular song in Venice at the time.
It sounds simple at the start but gradually gets so intertwined as to make the earth move and the horizon tilt.
The delayed imitation continues, the parts gradually coming back together at bar 30 before separating again. The cumulative ornamentation produces those moments when two or three voices have all the fun while the others hold a nice anchoring note. These moments can be quite a thrill to the singer, whether doing the Swingle Singer frills or the anchor. They reach a heightened awareness of a satisfying musical and temporal connect between singers when the plan comes together.
The opening of the Secunda Pars Propteria Deus (verse 5) in contrast, is completely homophonic (one has to be careful with that word – beware the spell-checker). So it is at bar 8, before the voices separate into their own playful counterpoint. The assembled faithful would then have had to know the words to discern any meaning from the delightful but complex layers of notes and words.
For more on Lassus, see post 04.08.2014 or touch the Lassus tag.
These three psalms tell of moments of grief, fear, shame or anger caused by conflict of one sort or another. While they all on first reading have a flavour of violence, and all are omitted from the weekly lectionary readings, they should not be ignored. They actually argue for reliance on divine truth and protection rather than the sword.
The psalmist first draws strength from divine guidance and support in the story of Exodus. The conquering of the promised lands is not attributed to armed force. In a precursor to Jesus’ command to Peter in the Garden of Gethsemane to put down his sword, so here:
I do not rely on my bow, and my sword does not give me the victory; surely you gave us victory (vs. 6, 7)
The psalmist is aware that God searches our hearts (v. 21; both this verse and the next are quoted by Paul in Romans 8). The remainder of the song is a lament at some grievous reverses. Despite humiliation:
yet we have not forgotten you nor strayed from your covenant. Our heart never turned back (vs. 17, 18)
Settings are few in the ether but Thomas Tomkins (1572-1656) used verses 5 to 9 for an attractive composition for solo bass and choir. Verses 6 and 7 quoted above are also used as the refrain in The Emergent Psalter.
Little will be said about this song, as it is virtually a repeat of Psalm 14 (qv. this post>). Paul quotes these psalms in Romans 3 to emphasise grace and love, rather than justification under the law.
In this psalm, the first of seven ‘skips’ in a row, the grief is caused by false witness or betrayal by someone who was considered a friend:
My companion hurt a friend and broke a covenant with speech softer than butter — but war is in his heart. (v. 20, 21)
If nothing else, this psalm should encourage us to ‘speak the truth in love’ (Eph.4:15) — and then stick to it. We are also advised, as in I Peter 5:7, to cast our burdens upon God.
Several of the settings in Choralwiki use just a few verses, often 2 to 4 which are a plea to be heard in times of anguish. The show-stopper is one by Giovanni Gabrieli (1554 ‒ 1612) for 12 parts in three choirs. However, there are also four-part settings by Lassus and Mendelssohn.